Ibn Gabirol Digital Project

This project endeavours to provide a comprehensive overview of the philosophy of Ibn Gabirol, an 11th-century Jewish philosopher from Andalusia. Within this framework, both his biographical details and philosophical writings are examined on this website through the use of multiple digital methodologies. Categorized under the domain of Digital Humanities, the project aims to expand the accessibility of Ibn Gabirol's philosophical ideas to a broader audience.

By adopting this multifaceted approach, the project aims to offer a comprehensive and scholarly view of Ibn Gabirol's life and works, enriching both contemporary and future scholarship in the realm of philosophy.

The project is sponsored by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK).

Visit the User Manual for detailed instructions to improve your experience.

Ibn Gabirol

About Ibn Gabirol Digital Project Website

The following components constitute the structure of the website:


The "Life" section employs digital visualization techniques to articulate the chronology and geographical contexts of Ibn Gabirol's life. Leveraging primary historical documentation, the narrative is enhanced by cartographic and pictorial elements. The integration of these visual aids serves not only to facilitate conceptual comprehension among readers but also to enrich the historiography of philosophy.


In the "Works" segment, the extant philosophical texts by Ibn Gabirol are presented through EVT. Each work is accompanied by its respective manuscripts and transcriptions rendered in their original languages. Included are the "Fons Vitae," an Arabic metaphysical treatise that has been preserved via its Latin translation in the 12th century; "Islâh al-’akhlâq," an Arabic discourse on ethics; and "Keter Malkhut," a Hebrew composition focused on metaphysical poetry.


The "Bibliography" section enumerates both primary and secondary sources pertaining to Ibn Gabirol, thus providing a scholarly foundation for further inquiry.


In the "Tools" section, a quantitative ve visual examination of Ibn Gabirol's philosophical perspectives is conducted utilizing diverse digital methodologies.


Primary Sources

Book 1 Thumbnail

1892. Avencebrolis (Ibn Gabirol) Fons Vitae, ex Arabico in Latinum Translatus ab Johanne Hispano et Dominico Gundissalino, edited by Baeumker. Münster.

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1954. Fountain of Life, translated by A. B. Jacob. Philadelphia.

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1962. Ozar Ha-Mahshavah shel Ha-Yahadut, edited by Abraham Sifroni. Israel: Mosad Ha-Rav Kuk.

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1962. The Fountain of Life, (Book 3), translated by Henry E. Wedeck. New York: Philosophical Library.

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1966. Improvement of the Moral Qualities, Columbia University Oriental Studies, Vol. I, Stephen S. Wise (trans.). New York: AMS Press.

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2001. Selected Poems of Solomon Ibn Gabirol, translated by P. Cole. Princeton.

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2003.The Kingly Crown, Keter Malkhut, translated by Bernard Lewis, notes by Bernard Lewis, edited by Andrew Gluck. Indiana: University of Notre Dame.

Book 8 Thumbnail

J.A. Laumakis (trans.), The Font of Life (Fons Vitae) by Solomon Ibn Gabirol (Avicebron). Milwaukee.

Secondary Sources


Bargebuhr, F. P., Salomo Ibn Gabirol, Ostwestliches Dichtertum. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1976.

Ibn Gabirol (Avicebron): Latin and Hebrew Philosophical Traditions, ed. N. Polloni, M. Benedetto, & F. Dal Bo. Turnhout, 2023.

Loewe, R., Ibn Gabirol. London: Peter Halban, 1989.

Munk, S., Mélanges de philosophie Juive et Arabe . Paris: A. Franck, 1859.

Guttmann, J., Die Philosophie des Salomon ibn Gabirol: dargestellt und erläutert. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1889.

Bargebuhr, F. P., 1956 / 1997. “La doctrine de la matière chez Avicébron,” Revue de Théologie et de Philosophie, trois. série, 6: 261—79. Reprinted in Fernand Brunner, Métaphysique d'Ibn Gabirol et de la tradition platonicienne. Great Britain; USA: Ashgate, Variorum.

Pessin, S., Ibn Gabirol’s Theology of Desire: Matter and Method in Jewish Medieval Neoplatonism. Cambridge, 2013.

Papers & Book Chapters & Proceedings

Beccarisi, A., “Zwischen Averroes, Avicenna und Avicebron. Meister Eckhart und die Noetik”, Islam und Judentum, ed. C. Büchner vd., Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2016, pp. 223-40.

Blake, A., “Implications of Avicebron’s Notion of Will." Systematics, 4 (1966), pp. 1-41.

Brunner, F., “Maitre Eckhart et Avicébron,” Lectionum varietates. Hommage a Paul Vignaux (1904–1987), ed. J. Jolivet vd. Paris 1991, pp. 133–154.

Brunner, Fernand. 1965. Platonisme et aristotélisme. la critique d'Ibn Gabirol par saint Thomas d'Aquin Les Etudes Philosophiques 20 (3), (1965), pp. 341-342.

Caster, K.J., "William of Auvergne's adaptation of Ibn Gabirol's doctrine of the divine will." The Modern Schoolman, 74/1, (1996), pp. 31-42.

Çelebi, F., “İbn Cebirol’ün Dominiken ve Fransisken Düşünürlerin Eserleri Bağlamında Hristiyan Düşüncesine Etkisi” (The Influence of Ibn Gabirol on Christian Thought in the Context of the Works of Dominican and Franciscan Philosophers), Journal of Islamic Research, 2022;33(3), pp. 775-795.

Çelebi, F., “The Influence of Ibn Gabirol on John Duns Scotus’ Metaphysics”, Journal of Academic Research in Religious Sciences. 22/2, (2022), pp. 843-862.

De Macedo, Cecilia Cintra Cavaleiro. “A Virtude Da ‘mulher Adúltera’: Ibn Gabirol e a Dignidade Da Matéria.” Veritas (Porto Alegre) 63, no. 1 (2018), pp. 9–25.

Dillon, John. 1992. “Solomon Ibn Gabirol's Doctrine of Intelligible Matter,” in L. Goodman (ed.), Neoplatonism and Jewish Thought, pp. 43–59. Albany: SUNY Press.

Eran, Amira. “Crítica de Ibn Daud a La Definición de Materia Prima de Ibn Gabirol y Puntos de Vista de Dominicus Gundissalinus.” Anales del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 40, no. 1 (2023), pp. 201–212.

Fenton, Paul. 1976. “Gleanings from Môseh Ibn ‘Ezra's Maqâlat al-Hadîqa,” Sefarad, 36: 285–298.

Frank, Daniel H. 1998. “Ibn Gabirol, Solomon (1021/2–57/8),” s.v. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Version 1.0. London and New York: Routledge.

Jorati, Julia. “Emanationist Powers: Plotinus, Theology of Aristotle, and Ibn Gabirol.” In Powers. United States: Oxford University Press, Incorporated, 2021.

Jospe, Raphael. “Jewish Neoplatonism: Isaac Israeli and Solomon Ibn Gabirol.” In Jewish Philosophy in the Middle Ages, 79–131. Boston, USA: Academic Studies Press, 2019.

Kaufmann, D., “Pseudo-Empedokles als Quelle Salomon ibn Gabirols”, Studien über Salomon Ibn Gabirol, ed. David Kaufmann, Budapest 1899, pp. 1–63.

Laumakis “Avicebron (Solomon ibn Gabirol) on Creation ex nihilo.” The Modern Schoolman, 79/1 (2001), pp. 41-55.

Laumakis, J., "Aquinas’ Misinterpretation of Avicebron on the Activity of Corporeal Substances: Fons Vitae II, 9 and 10." The Modern Schoolman 81.2 (2004), pp. 135-149.

Liebes, Yehudah. 1987. “Sefer Yezirah ezel R. Shlomo Ibn Gevirol u-perush ha-shir ‘Ahavtikha.” In The Beginnings of Jewish Mysticism in Medieval Europe, edited by J. Dan. [Also In Jerusalem Studies in Jewish Thought 6: 73–123.

Loewe, R., "The influence of Solomon Ibn Gabirol on Abraham Ibn Ezra." Abraham ibn Ezra y su tiempo, 1, (1990), pp. 199-210.

Loewe, Raphael. 1979. “Ibn Gabirol's Treatment of Sources in the Kether Malkhuth,” in Studies in Jewish Religious and Intellectual History (Presented to Alexander Altmann on the Occasion of His Seventieth Birthday), edited by S. Stein and R. Loewe, pp. 183–194. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press.

Manekin, “Solomon Ibn Gabirol and Shem Tov b. Joseph Falaquera, Excerpts from ‘The Source of Life’”, Medieval Jewish Philosophical Writings, ed. Charles Manekin, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2008, pp. 23–87.

Mathis II, C. K. 1992. “Parallel Structures in the Metaphysics of Iamblichus and Ibn Gabirol,” in L. E. Goodman, Ed. Neoplatonism and Jewish Thought, pp. 61–76. Albany: SUNY Press.

McGinn, B., “Ibn Gabirol: The Sage among the Schoolmen”, Neoplatonism and Jewish Thought, ed. Lenn. E. Goodman, State University of New York Press 1982, pp. 77-110.

Meyrav, Yoav. “Meister Eckhart Reading Ibn Gabirol’s Fons Vitae.” In Yearbook of the Maimonides Centre for Advanced Studies 2019, 2019:65–100. Germany: Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2020.

Micaninova, M., "Was Aquinas Right When He Claimed That Avicebron Departed from Aristotle?" Archiwum Historii Filozofii i Myśli Społecznej, 62 (2017), pp. 281-305.

Müller, Gerhard, Horst Balz, James K Cameron, Christian Grethlein, Stuart G Hall, Brian L Hebblethwaite, Karl Hoheisel, Wolfgang Janke, Volker Leppin, and Knut Schäferdiek. “Hypostatische Union -Jesus Christus, -Neuchalkedonismus Ibn Daud -Abraham ibn Daud Ibn Ezra -Abraham ben Meir ibn Ezra Ibn Gabirol -Salomo ibn Gabirol.” In Heinrich II. - Ibsen, 15:781–781. Originally published 1986. Germany: Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2020.

Palazzo, A., "Eckhart’s Islamic and Jewish Sources: Avicenna, Avicebron, and Averroes" A Companion to Meister Eckhart, ed. C. M. Bellitto Brill, Leiden 2013, pp. 253-298.

Pessin, Sarah. 2004. “Loss, Presence, and Gabirol's Desire: Medieval Jewish Philosophy and the Possibility of a Feminist Ground,” in Women and Gender in Jewish Philosophy, edited by Hava Tirosh-Samuelson, pp. 27–50. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Pessin, Sarah. 2003. “Jewish Neoplatonism: Being Above Being and Divine Emanation in Solomon Ibn Gabirol and Isaac Israeli,” in Cambridge Companion to Medieval Jewish Philosophy, edited by Dan Frank and Oliver Leaman, pp. 91–110. Cambridge University Press.

Pessin, Sarah. 2005a. “The Manifest Image: Revealing the Hidden in Halevi, Saadya and Gabirol,” in History of Platonism: Plato Redivivus, edited by John Finamore and Robert Berchman, pp. 253–270. New Orleans: University Press of the South.

Pessin, Sarah. 2009. “Matter, Form and the Corporeal World,” in The Cambridge History of Jewish Philosophy: From Antiquity to the Seventeenth Century, edited by Tamar Rudavsky and Steven Nadler, pp. 269–301. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Peters, F. E. 1967. “Avicebron (Ibn Gabirol, Solomon ben Judah),” s.v. New Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1, p. 1130. [New York: McGraw-Hill]

Peters, F. E. 1980. “Ve-qara el ha-Ayin ve-Nivqa,” Tarbiz, 50: 339–47.

Peters, F. E.1958/1977. “Sefer ‘Arûgat ha-Bôsem: ha-Qeta‘im mi-tôkh Sêfer ‘Meqôr Hayyîm’,” Tarbiz 27. [Reprinted in Shlomo Pines, Bêyn Mahshevet Yisrôel le-Mahshevet ha-‘Amîm: Mehkarîm be-Tôldôt ha-Fîlôsôfiya ha-Yehûdit (Bialik: Jerusalem, 1977), pp. 44–60 [in Hebrew].

Peters, F. E.1977a. “ha-’im dîber Shlômô Ibn Gabîrôl sarah al ha-ûma?,” in Bêyn Mahshevet Yisrôel le-Mahshevet ha-‘Amîm: Mehkarîm be-Tôldôt ha-Fîlôsôfiya ha-Yehûdit (Bialik: Jerusalem, 1977), pp. 61–7 [in Hebrew].

Pines, S., “Ibn Gabirol”, Encyclopaedia Judaica, c. 7, pp. 321-327.

Polloni, N., "Toledan Ontologies: Gundissalinus, Ibn Daud, and the Problem of Gabirolian Hylomorphism" Appropriation, Interpretation and Criticism: Philosophical and Theological Exchanges Between the Arabic, Hebrew and Latin Intellectual Traditions, ed. A. Fidora – N. Polloni, Brepols, Turnhot 2017, pp. 19-49.

Ravitsky, Aviram. “Ibn Gabirol and Judah Ha-Levi’s Usage of Dialogue: The Role of the Disciple in Fons Vitae and That of the King in Kitāb Al-Khazarī.” Religions (Basel, Switzerland ) 10, no. 10 (2019), pp. 549–.

Rosin, D., “The Ethics of Solomon İbn Gebirol”, The Jewish Quarterly Review, 3/2 (1891), pp. 159-181.

Rosin, D., “The Ethics of Solomon İbn Gebirol”, The Jewish Quarterly Review, 3/2 (1891), pp. 159-181.

Rudavksy, T. M. 1978. “Conflicting Motifs: Ibn Gabirol on Matter and Evil.” The New Scholasticism, 52 (1): 54–71.

Rudavksy, T. M. 1991. “Ibn Gabirol (Avicebron or Avicebrol),” s.v. Dictionary of Literary Biography (Medieval Volume, Vol. 115), pp. 248–252.

Salvatierra Ossorio, Aurora. “Cano, María José (ed., Trad., Intr. y Notas) (2021) Ibn Gabirol. Antología.” Miscelánea de estudios árabes y hebraicos. Sección hebreo 71 (2022): 191–193.

Samuelson, Norbert. 1987. “Ibn Gabirol, Shelomoh,” s.v. The Encyclopedia of Religion, edited by Mircea Eliade. New York: The MacMillan Publishing Co.

Scholem, G. 1939. “Iqvatov shel Gevirol ba-Qabbalah.” In E. Steiman and A.A. Kovak, Eds. Measef Sofrei Eretz Yisroel, pp. 160–78. Tel Aviv.

Tzemah, Adi. 1985. Essay in Mehkarim bi-yetsirat Shelomoh Ibn Gevirol, edited by Zvi Malachi. Tel-Aviv: Mekhon Kats le-heker ha-sifrut ha-‘ivrit, Universitat Tel-Aviv.

Tzur, Reuven. 1985. “‘Ahavtikha ki-ahavat ish yehido’ li-Ibn Gevirol—Shir Philosophi o Philosophia be-haruzim?,” in Mehkarim bi-yetsirat Shelomoh Ibn Gevirol, edited by Zvi Malachi. Tel-Aviv: Mekhon Kats le-heker ha-sifrut ha-‘ivrit, Universitat Tel-Aviv.

Weisheipl, James A. 1979. “Albertus Magnus and Universal Hylomorphism: Avicebron,” in Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 10, pp. 239–260.

Wijnhoven, J., "The Mysticism of Solomon Ibn Gabirol", The Journal of Religion, 45/2 (1965), pp. 137-152.